- Nitrifiers grow in water, but need surface to adhere to and need a “biological filter.” Vessel/tank biofilter packed with highly porous material for nitrifying bacteria to colonize.
- Gas waste (CO2) respired through gills, a fish metabolic end product. Negative effects on fish health if excess carbon dioxide acidifies the water. Forced gas ventilation of water with a “degassing box” increases gas exchange efficiency. Laminar flow passes water across trays and forces ambient air across the water and carries out the CO2.
- Pumps (0.25-5 horsepower) are required to transport water and wastes.
- High energy demand.
- One-phase power or three-phase power.
- Larger tanks with more fish require larger pumps, larger pipes, longer distance from tanks to filtration system, and more energy.
- Solids, nitrogen, and approved chemicals for parasite removal if necessary.
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